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The sustainability of the pension system in Spain
Joan Llobet Dalmases

This document analyzes the sustainability of the pension system in Spain within the framework of the welfare state. It highlights that pensions are fundamental for providing economic security and reducing poverty among the retired population. However, it warns about the lack of resources to meet long-term pension obligations, with an aging population and other demographic factors as the main challenges.


This paper underlines that the financial strains of the Spanish pension system are evident, with a constant increase in retired people and pension expenditure over time, while affiliations to Social Security have a more volatile behavior.


The document manifests the direct relationship between demographic changes, such as an aging population, low fertility rate and the precariousness of the pension system. It points out that demographic projections indicate a higher proportion of dependent people compared to active contributors, questioning the system’s ability to maintain adequate benefits.


To address these challenges, the paper proposes rethinking the welfare state and adopting sustainable public policies that promote an equitable distribution of resources and emphasizes the importance of increasing the retirement age, extending working life and linking pensions to life expectancy.

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