Resultados para la búsqueda "inequality" : 11 resultados
The prospective view: trends and challenges for the future of social responsibility
Daniela Toro Carnevali, Manuel Fernández López

The social responsibility of companies and organizations towards their stakeholders and towards the planet has been evolving and changing, as has geopolitics and the global economy based on the globalization of markets and capital. This article takes a prospective approach and presents the main challenges that companies and society currently face and the trends that companies and international think tanks are developing to face these challenges. Similarly, the European Union, with its taxonomy, requires companies a greater comply with the premises of the Green Deal. Civil society is also a key element when it comes to demanding more committed companies that can generate sustainable responses to global and local challenges. This involves having an education system that produces more aware and empowered citizens, capable of demanding companies to align their activities with sustainable development.

Diversity and inclusion as a source of value: an approach from the perspective of functional diversity
Natalia García-Carbonell, Mònica Cerdan-Chiscano

Diversity and inclusion remain issues in the agendas of today’s organizations. Despite significant advances in managing workforce differences, there are still challenges to face in order to truly achieve fully inclusive organizations. Diversity management is set up as the key success factor in recognizing and integrating employee differences, so it is particularly relevant for companies to become aware of the need to improve their management capability in this area. This article provides a literature review of the terms diversity and inclusion, the analysis of the main effects they have and their management and the specific case study of functional diversity. A conclusion section is provided in the last section of the article.

Multidimensional poverties
Agustí Pérez-Foguet

In the last twenty years, a methodology that allows us to measure, with a high degree of international consensus, multidimensional poverty has been consolidated. The definition of the measurement methodology has facilitated to specify and put into operation the concept. In parallel, “sectoral” poverty proposals have been used and finally consolidated, with their own conceptual importance and usefulness. The link between the dimensions of multidimensional poverty and sectoral poverties is diverse. This paper briefly presents and discusses different approaches (labour, energy, water, sanitation, and period poverties). It is argued that reducing sectoral poverties to the dimensions of multidimensional poverty limits their usefulness and impact. The methodological work done previously in terms of measurement of multidimensional poverty, in the singular, helps also to advance in the multidimensional characterization of said sectoral poverties.

Is sustainable economic and social development possible? A critical note on the ¿value¿ of the SDGs
Joan Torrent-Sellens

This article analyses the connection that scientific economics has made between economic development and social sustainability. Starting from the classical idea of value in capitalism, the article reviews the main contributions that classical, neoclassical, heterodox and modern economic syntheses have made on the possibility of a socially sustainable economic development. From this review, the need to build a new sustainable value economy is identified and its main dimensions are analysed, especially the role that firms, markets and government should play. In our research on the fit between new sustainable ways of generating value and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the results obtained are unfavourable. The SDGs must substantially modify their approach and methodology to move towards a more socially sustainable economic value.

Collaborative economy: myths and realities of a transformative concept
Joan Torrent-Sellens, Lluís Alfons Garay Tamajón, María Jesús Martínez Argüelles

Oikonomics, the UOC journal on economics, business and society, has published two special issues, 14th and 15th, dedicated to the collaborative economy. The two issues analyze from different points of view the analysis of a concept that is receiving increasing attention as a new economic agent that, through digital platforms, has shown its capacity for transformation. In the two issues of Oikonomics, this phenomenon is analyzed from a theoretical perspective, but also a practical one based on the empirical analysis of the trends that are taking place in this field. In this webinar video, the two coordinators of these two issues, the lecturers of the Economics and Business Studies Department, Joan Torrent and Lluís Garay, talk about the evolution of the collaborative economy concept and the different visions and realities related around it, as well as its capacity to transform society. The moderator of the webinar is the Dean of the Economics and Business Department of the UOC, M.ª Jesús Martínez.

The future is collective and the collectives are the future
Albert Cañigueral Bagó

The evolution towards the network company and the resulting fragmentation of work increases the number of self-employed persons with intermittent relationships between various employers and with their potential co-workers. In this context, «collectives of the self-employed» emerge in contrast to the narrative that self-employed workers are isolated from each other. These collectives organise fights against algorithms, fights for labour rights, pool material and digital resources and even present themselves to the market under a unified brand without being a company. As emerging forms of organisation, they face challenges regarding their recognition as actors in social dialogue and are even accused of acting as cartels under the prism of free competition. Although their current forms are probably not the definitive forms, we can intuit that the «collectives of the self-employed» have and will have a relevant role in defining the ways of working and living in the future.

Democratising the platform economy
Melissa Renau Cano, Mayo Fuster Morell, Ricard Espelt

Platforms such as Glovo, Deliveroo and Uber Eats that operate in the field of food delivery have set up in cities all around the world. The expansion of these platforms has had an impact on workers’ rights in what is considered as platform capitalism. Even then, democratic alternatives connected to the social and solidarity economy and digital commons exist. This article analyses the democratic qualities of four alternative food delivery platforms with headquarters in Europe (CoopCycle, CILFé, Crow and Mensakas). On the one hand, the results show that these platforms consider their workers’ rights; that is the main reason why they form an alternative to platform capitalism. On the other hand, the analysis shows that these platforms face important challenges, especially regarding their economic sustainability and scalability.

Industrial revolutions: a spurious concept
Eduard Aibar

This article analyses the concept of industrial revolution, from its origins at the end of the 19th century up to the current excitement surrounding a supposed Fourth Industrial Revolution. Despite being an idea that is firmly embedded in the Western cultural imagination and in the field of academics, numerous historiographic, economic and sociological studies carried out in recent decades have deeply questioned it. In this article we will explore, on the one hand, its most widely-known deficiencies – which for many make it a spurious concept, loaded with erroneous suppositions and an obsolete vision of technological development - and, on the other, some of the ideological and political effects of its use.

Employment in the new digital wave: human robots or human resources?
Joan Torrent-Sellens

Concern for the future of employment is a recurring theme whenever a process of disruptive change in technology takes place. Economic analysis has shown that technology does not destroy work, but it skews skills and abilities, and displaces tasks, jobs, occupations and people. Generally, in the long term, the consequences of these technological waves on work tend to be positive because they are linked to increases in productivity, new economic activity, higher employment and salary improvements for people working in firms or sectors related to technological innovation. In addition, the effects of job substitution can be offset in the long term if firms’ strategies and policies, especially in terms of human resource management, take the form of active employment policies that train and reskill displaced people. This general form of interaction of technology with work has been questioned with the recent digital wave characterized, among other factors, by the explosion of intelligent robotics. According to some authors, the rate of substitution of human labour by robots will be so fast that they can hardly be compensated by the usual route of increases in demand and productivity. Other authors argue just the opposite, and frame the current dynamics within the context of the traditional interactions between technology and work. However, robotics is non-human work, has very particular and dynamic characteristics, offers a wide range of possibilities of use and, at the same time, generates fears too. In this article, we will analyse the employment implications of new robotics, paying special attention to the human resources management.

The political economy of network industries in the European Union
Francesc Trillas

In the last three decades, network industries have experienced major changes the world over. It can be presumed that they will continue to do so, driven by technological and economic changes and also by the campaigns of interest groups framed by institutional and ideological parameters. In the European Union these changes have seen a growing degree of involvement at the community level, without reaching the point of creating European networks. Paradoxically, this could be beneficial for the resolution of certain dilemmas that arise in an electricity sector where a European demos is not well established, a factor that is problematic in other aspects. A consolidated European demos would require a consolidated European political arena, European public with European political parties and lobbyists working at a European level, and so on. The reason this lack of development of a European demos may be favourable to sectors such as electricity or communications is that it can stop public interventions in these sectors from being made into political issues. Although the European Union has already played an important role in increasing competition in these sectors, it may play a much more important role in a future that advances towards a market that is truly integrated, in which networks of a real European scope exist.

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