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Autores Gomis, Joan Miquel (7) Lladós-Masllorens, Josep (4) Torrent-Sellens, Joan (3) Lamolla , Laura (3) Cañigueral Bagó, Albert (2) Garay Tamajón, Lluís Alfons (2) Meseguer-Artola, Antoni (2) Canals, Agustí (2) Cugueró-Escofet, Natàlia (2) Esteban Millat, Irene (2) Budet Jofra, Xavier (2) Pérez Gómez, Alexis (2) Viu Roig, Marta (2) González Reverté, Francesc (2) Corrons, August (2) Hintzmann, Carolina (2) Torrent-Sellens, Joan (2) Baraza Sánchez, Xavier (2) Sabadell i Bosch, Mar (2) Puig Gómez, Albert (2) Miralbell Izard, Oriol (2) Fitó Bertran, Àngels (2) Batalla-Busquets, Josep-Maria (2) Adamiak, Czesław (1) Roelofsen, Maartje (1) Minca, Claudio (1) Doménech Pascual, Gabriel (1) Rodríguez-Piñero Royo, Miguel (1) Renau Cano, Melissa (1) Fuster Morell, Mayo (1) Espelt, Ricard (1) Rodríguez-Ardura, Inma (1) Hülskamp, Ian (1) Domènech Costafreda, Gemma (1) Ertz, Myriam (1) Malo, Miguel Ángel (1) Sánchez Santos, Javier (1) Ballestar, María Teresa (1) Sainz, Jorge (1) Morales Pallarés, Carolina (1) Zaragoza, Marta (1) Gálvez Mozo, Ana (1) González Ramos, Ana M. (1) González, Susana (1) Mateos, Ruth (1) Suau-Sanchez, Pere (1) Pérez-Quintana, Anna (1) Edo Jové, Alba (1) Martínez Zorrilla, David (1) Cerrillo i Martínez, Agustí (1) Pi Palomés, Xavier (1) Tuset-Peiró, Pere (1) Aibar, Eduard (1) Pacheco Bernal, Carmen (1) Morales Solana, Doris (1) Alegret Cotes, Alejandro (1) Català, Josep M. (1) Soler Domenech, Clara (1) Navío Navarro, Mariché (1) Folguera Obiol, Xavier (1) Firmenich, Mario Eduardo (1) Sanchis-Palacio, Joan Ramon (1) Amat, Natàlia (1) Amat, Oriol (1) Domínguez Jurado, José Miguel (1) García Ruiz, Ricardo (1) Ruiz Dotras, Elisabet (1) Igual Molina, David (1) Fitó Bertran, Àngels (1) Pérez Mira, Domingo (1) Gómez-Cedeño, Milena (1) Guitart i Tarrés, Laura (1) Morantes Guerra, Shantall (1) Li Zeng, Yohana (1) Closa Noguera, Oriol (1) López Parada, José (1) Álvarez-Palau, Eduard J. (1) Ficapal-Cusí, Pilar (1) Sánchez Marcos, Marina (1) Platas Ruiz, Verònica (1) Serrano Fernández, María José (1) Thomas Currás, Helena (1) Baldoví, Purificación (1) Rimbau-Gilabert, Eva (1) Mallén Broch, Francisco Fermín (1) Domínguez Escrig, Emilio (1) Rosanas Martí, Josep Maria (1) Giner Sánchez, David (1) Richards, Greg (1) Gascón, Jordi (1) Cañada, Ernest (1) Díaz, Pablo (1) Morales Pérez, Soledad (1) Garcia Jané, Jordi (1) Sanchis, Joan Ramon (1) Bach Oller, Elisabet (1) Campos-i-Climent, Vanessa (1) Hirota, Yasuyuki (1) Fernández Rodríguez, Oriol (1) Berzosa Alonso-Martínez, Carlos (1) Español Casanovas, Ferran (1) de la Villa Aleman, Laura (1) Ribera Fumaz, Ramon (1) Gázquez Abad, Juan Carlos (1) Sánchez-Toledo Ledesma, Agustín (1) Salas Ollé, Carles (1) Rimbau-Gilabert, Eva (1) Dalmau Pons, Ines (1) Ferrer Puig, Ramon (1) de Montserrat i Nonó, Jaume (1) Molinero Ruiz, Emilia (1) Nájera Chico, Julià (1) Ros Pueyo, Andrés (1) Tvrdy Moix, Jiri (1) Bestratén Belloví, Manuel (1) García González-Castro, Guillermo (1) Macías Perea, Daniel (1) Galdos Valdecantos, Itziar (1) Mañé Estrada, Aurèlia (1) Ruiz Posino, Àlex (1) Trillas, Francesc (1) Tugores Ques, Juan (1) Luis Tomás, Mariona (1) Caballé, Daniel (1) Mollá, Alexandre (1) Blanch, Gil (1) Manrique Pérez, María Francisca (1) Peñarroya i Farell, Montserrat (1) Rodríguez, Inma (1) Ruiz Dotras, Elisabet (1) Serradell López, Enric (1) Plana Erta, Dolors (1) Martínez Argüelles, María Jesús (1) Liviano Solís, Daniel (1) Manzanares, Joan (1)
Changes in the global Airbnb offer during the COVID-19 pandemic
Czesław Adamiak

Airbnb is the most valuable tourism company in history and an epitome of the platform economy in tourism. Since 2020, together with the entire tourism sector, it has experienced the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper presents the context for the current international research on Airbnb by describing the origin, current state, and possible developments of the platform offer during and after the pandemic. The data on the global Airbnb offer in 2018, 2019, and 2020 comes from web-scraping the platform website. It shows that the dynamic growth of accommodation supply stopped in the last year. The platform offer has continued to disperse geographically towards less saturated markets and rural areas during the pandemic period. Entire flats and apartments have been continuously growing in dominance in the structure of the listing, while the slower growth in the percentage of multihosts’ listings indicates a slowdown in the process of the professionalisation of the platform offer.

Sanitised homes and healthy bodies: reflections on Airbnb¿s response to the pandemic
Maartje Roelofsen, Claudio Minca

This paper examines some key changes to Airbnb's travel philosophy, protocols and standards since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. It reflects on how the climate of uncertainty imposed by the global health crisis has induced Airbnb to promote among its users a new ethos of flexibility, adaptability, liability and long-term commitment. In particular, we discuss how new protocols and regulatory measures have engendered a culture of uniformity and transparency regarding issues of health and safety, but also concerning social interactions, personal communication, labour, and the conduct of everyday life of Airbnb's hosts and guests. The article also highlights that the changes implemented by the platform have not gone unchallenged and how some of the protests against the new measures and protocols were manifested via the Airbnb Community Center. We conclude with a few considerations about possible future directions of the Airbnb hospitality machinery and their potential consequences on the post-pandemic landscapes of travel and tourism.

Digital platforms in the vehicle for hire sector
Gabriel Doménech Pascual

The sector of urban passenger transport with tourism vehicles (taxis and vehicles for hire) is, surely, the one where the appearance of the sharing economy –or, we can choose to say, the digital platforms– has given rise to more heated controversies, more questionable regulatory measures and a greater number of disputes. In the work presented herein, a brief review is set out of the latest regulatory issues which have been outlined here, highlighting those which are still awaiting resolution, in a sense which is seemingly not easy to perceive.

Circular economy and the regulation of labour
Miguel Rodríguez-Piñero Royo

The regulation of work has been built on a dependent/self-employed dichotomy, which is being overcome by the development of new forms of employment. Among these, those linked to new economic models, such as the collaborative economy, are becoming very relevant. In these forms of work people provide services with an economic value, but outside traditional markets and contractual schemes. These provisions of services find a faulty fit in this binary model, demanding their own regulatory framework. The objective of this work is to define this problem, and to propose some alternatives to solve it.

The future is collective and the collectives are the future
Albert Cañigueral Bagó

The evolution towards the network company and the resulting fragmentation of work increases the number of self-employed persons with intermittent relationships between various employers and with their potential co-workers. In this context, «collectives of the self-employed» emerge in contrast to the narrative that self-employed workers are isolated from each other. These collectives organise fights against algorithms, fights for labour rights, pool material and digital resources and even present themselves to the market under a unified brand without being a company. As emerging forms of organisation, they face challenges regarding their recognition as actors in social dialogue and are even accused of acting as cartels under the prism of free competition. Although their current forms are probably not the definitive forms, we can intuit that the «collectives of the self-employed» have and will have a relevant role in defining the ways of working and living in the future.

Democratising the platform economy
Melissa Renau Cano, Mayo Fuster Morell, Ricard Espelt

Platforms such as Glovo, Deliveroo and Uber Eats that operate in the field of food delivery have set up in cities all around the world. The expansion of these platforms has had an impact on workers’ rights in what is considered as platform capitalism. Even then, democratic alternatives connected to the social and solidarity economy and digital commons exist. This article analyses the democratic qualities of four alternative food delivery platforms with headquarters in Europe (CoopCycle, CILFé, Crow and Mensakas). On the one hand, the results show that these platforms consider their workers’ rights; that is the main reason why they form an alternative to platform capitalism. On the other hand, the analysis shows that these platforms face important challenges, especially regarding their economic sustainability and scalability.

New strategies and alternative aspects of the platform economy. PE transition proposals towards sustainability
Lluís Alfons Garay Tamajón
Pricing in peer-to-peer and two-sided digital marketplaces: Airbnb in Barcelona
Josep Lladós-Masllorens, Antoni Meseguer-Artola, Inma Rodríguez-Ardura

Digital platforms are changing the way in which suppliers and consumers of accommodation services interact, deeply transforming the tourism market. In these peer-to-peer and twosided digital marketplaces, pricing strategies become crucial for value generation, yet in contrast to conventional digital marketplaces, prices are set by non-professional vendors who are also consumers.

Airbnb is the most successful case of sharing economy-based accommodation rental, providing a vast and diverse range of places for tourists to stay in. In this digital marketplace, final consumers compete with professional hosts, looking for new business opportunities. Previous studies on pricing have not made a distinction between both groups. Our investigation aims to reduce this gap by focusing just on peer-to-peer transactions. We use a large dataset covering accommodation listed by non-professional hosts in Barcelona.

The paper offers evidence that higher accommodation prices are best explained by consumers’ preference for the intrinsic functional qualities of the value proposition. The systematic interaction of value and volume of online reviews and pricing strategies of close players can also produce a crucial impact on pricing.

Digital platforms: Foundations and a classification proposal
Agustí Canals, Ian Hülskamp

Although those structures that we now call platforms have always been present in some sectors, it is from the establishment of the digital economy that they have come to play a leading role in our lives. Without understanding the mechanisms that govern the dynamics of digital platforms, which are different from those associated with the more traditional economy, it is difficult to understand many aspects of how today’s economy works. The objective of this article is to offer an introduction to the idea of platform and its characteristics. First, we review the general platform concept, the specificities of digital platforms and the particularities of their operation. Second, we describe the characteristics of the platforms that we consider more relevant in order to understand their social and economic effects. Finally, we choose three of these characteristics (the degree of digitisation, the openness in terms of access, provision, use and distribution, and their governance mechanisms) to develop a proposal for the classification of the platforms that we intend as a help to organise a little better our conception of the phenomenon. The classification scheme leads to the definition of different types of platforms that behave differently, as shown by the examples that we identify for each of them. We hope that our analysis will contribute to a better understanding of the paradigm shift brought about by the digitisation of the economy.

Climate emergency, a new energy model and the collaborative economy: towards citizen energy communities?
Gemma Domènech Costafreda

Becoming the first continent to be climatically neutral is currently both Europe’s main challenge and greatest opportunity. A new energy model, based on energy that is renewable, distributed and efficient, is crucial in order to accelerate the solution to the climate emergency. In this sense, on 25 February 2015, the European Commission set out a vision of an Energy Union with citizens at its core, where citizens take ownership of the energy transition, benefit from new technologies to reduce their bills and participate actively in the market. In June 2019, the European Union turned this public policy objective into an applicable regulation while the new EU directive on the electricity market set a new actor on the energy market: the citizen energy community. In this article, we analyse the meaning and significance of this key player in transforming the economy into a climate-neutral economy.

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